More than 1/3 of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) also have chronic kidney disease (CKD).1 CKD multiplies the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, such as heart attack, stroke, and CV death, and puts patients on a path toward dialysis or kidney transplant.2-4 This risk grows with every stage of CKD.2-4
Kidney damage (≥3 months persistent proteinuria) but normal function2
Kidney damage (≥3 months persistent proteinuria)
and mildly reduced kidney function2
~50% of kidney function is lost6
Severe kidney damage and loss of function2
85%-90% of kidney function is lost2;
requires a transplant or dialysis for survival6
*eGFR measured in mL/min/1.73 m2.
†As demonstrated in a study of 3885 patients with type 2 diabetes and stage 3 chronic kidney disease, where more than half of patients were on a background of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi's) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).7
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1999 to 2004.
References: 1. Bailey RA, Wang Y, Zhu V, Rupnow MF. Chronic kidney disease in US adults with type 2 diabetes: an updated national estimate of prevalence based on Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) staging. BMC Res Notes. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-415. 2. Kidney disease statistics for the United States. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-statistics/kidney-disease. Accessed June 4, 2019. 3. Afkarian M, Sachs MC, Kestenbaum B, et al. Kidney disease and increased mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24(2):302-308. 4. National chronic kidney disease fact sheet, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/kidney_factsheet.pdf. Accessed June 4, 2019. 5. Deshpande AD, Harris-Hayes M, Schootman M. Epidemiology of diabetes and diabetes-related complications. Phys Ther. 2008;88(11):1254-1264. 6. Key points: living with stage 4 kidney disease. National Kidney Foundation website. https://www.kidney.org/patients/peers/stage4. Accessed June 4, 2019. 7. Vupputuri S, Kimes TM, Calloway MO, et al. The economic burden of progressive chronic kidney disease among patients with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications. 2014;28(1):10-16. 8. Pálsson R, Patel UD. Cardiovascular complications of diabetic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2014;21(3):273-280. 9. Brenner BM, Cooper ME, de Zeeuw D, et al. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(12):861-869. 10. Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Clarke WR, et al. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(12):851-860.